Short term marriage

How many years is considered a short time marriage?
Is the marriage considered a marriage up until the final divorce papers are signed?

How many years together until a ex wife can claim social security benefits on a spouse that refused to let her work?

There is no statutory definition for a short term marriage. I would consider any marriage lasting 1-3 years as short term.

You are legally married until the divorce is granted, however for purposes of property division and term of the marriage for alimony purposes the term of coverture, or the time period you lived together as husband and wife is used.

Parties must be married for 10 years before rights to one another’s social security are established.